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• Küresel Yeşil Büyüme Forumu 8 - 9 Ekim 2012, Kopenhag

Kalkınma Bakanlığı Bakan Yardımcısı Sayın Mehmet CEYLAN Bakanlık temsilcileri ile birlikte 8-9 Ekim 2012 tarihlerinde Kopenhag’da gerçekleştirilen Küresel Yeşil Büyüme Forumuna katılım sağlamıştır. Forum kamu ve özel sektörden 250 kişinin katılımıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Kaynak verimliliği, yenilenebilir enerji, kamu özel işbirlikleri, yerel yönetimler ve büyüme forumun odak konuları olmuştur.

Forumda kapsayıcı yeşil büyüme yaklaşımının geliştirilmesine ve Rio+20 çıktısı olan İstediğimiz Gelecek Belgesinin uygulamaya geçirilebilmesi için yapılabilecekler gündemin önemli konularını oluşturmuştur. Forumda öne çıkan konular ve varılan sonuçlar aşağıda yer almaktadır:

  • Büyüyen temiz teknoloji ve yenilenebilir enerji piyasası üretimde verimliği ve rekabeti artıracak, yeni iş imkanları yaratacak ve toplumlara fayda getirecektir.

  • Yeşil büyüme yaklaşımının hayata geçirilebilmesi için finansman, teknoloji ve insan kaynakları çok önemlidir. Bunun için yerel, ulusal ve uluslararası düzeyde kamu ve özel sektörün işbirliğinin geliştirilmesi ve yatırımların artırılması için gerekli teşviklerin oluşturulması önemlidir.

  • Yeşil büyüme çabalarının güçlendirilmesi için finansman açığını kapatmaya yönelik biran önce önlem alınması gereklidir. Bunun için özel sektörün yenilikçi finansman ile desteklenmesine ihtiyaç vardır.

  • Finansman kısıtlılığı nedeniyle özellikle daha yoksul ülkeler iklim değişikliği ve doğal kaynakların azalmasından daha fazla etkilenecektir.

  • Teknolojik ilerleme ve yeni teknoloji geliştirme yeşil ekonomiye geçisin önemli gerekliliklerinden biridir.

  • Kamu-özel işbirliklerinin sürdürülebilir kalkınmanın sağlanması açısından önemli bir rolü vardır.

Forum siyasi liderler ve özel sektörü bir araya getirecek bir ortam oluşturmuştur. Bu kapsamda özellikle yenilenebilir enerji alanında faaliyet göstermekte olan özel şirketler heyetimizle görüşmeler yapmıştır.

Finansman ihtiyacının karşılanması için uluslararası finans kuruluşlarının öneminin giderek artığı vurgulanmıştır. Özellikle bankacılık sistemi aracılığıyla bu kuruluşlardan sağlanacak kaynakların başta enerji verimliliği olmak yeşil büyüme amaçlı yatırımlar için kullandırabileceğinin altı çizilmiştir. Bunun da yeşil yatırımlar açısından risk unsurunu azaltacağı belirtilmiştir.

 

Sayın Mehmet Ceylan Konuşma Metni;

 

Distinguished Participants,

It is an honor for me to address this distinguished audience at such an occasion. And I would like to express our appreciation for the special sessions organized for Turkey.

We are living at a time in which local problems cannot be kept within their boundaries. Today, problems like poverty, epidemic diseases, pollution, drought, and conflicts affect not only the region that they are happening but the whole world.

Therefore, solutions for these problems need to be developed with a global perspective. We all should acknowledge that individual country policies are not fully adequate anymore.

Countries should act collectively and every country should make its fair contribution to global problems. Of course the concept of fair contribution is still debated. But I believe that the principles of “common but differentiated responsibilities” and “respective capabilities” are quite useful.

In this regard, Turkey, as an emerging economy is fully aware of its global responsibilities. And we will continue to do our part in attaining global sustainable development goals.

Over the last decade Turkey has made important reforms in a wide range of areas such as macroeconomic management, environmental protection, education, health, energy and local governments. These reforms have all contributed to sustainable development in Turkey. And some of these policies have also served green growth approach though they are not planned with this purpose.

Distinguished participants,

In the last decade, along with political stability, Turkey implemented a program for achieving macroeconomic stability and efficient, flexible and productive economic structure. This program is strictly implemented and realized successfully.

This program resulted in efficiency in public finance, strengthened financial sector, permanent decrease in inflation and increased the competitiveness.

Even after the serious global financial crisis in 2009, strong growth trend has maintained. Turkish economy has been one of the fastest growing economies in the world in 2010 and 2011 with 9.2 (nine point two) and 8.5 (eight point five) percent growth rates respectively.

Inflation has decreased rapidly to single digits from 30 (thirty) percent in 2002 to 6.4 (six point four) percent in 2010.

The ratio of public debt stock to GDP, decreased from 75 (seventy five) percent in 2001 to 40.8 (forty point eight) percent in 2011. The progress in the debt management lessens the risks of transferring the debt burden to future generations.

The share of public sector in the economy was successfully reduced with the accelerated privatization.

Parallel to privatization, public-private-partnership programs have been introduced in order to attract private sector finance for infrastructure projects.

Turkey has become an attractive country for foreign investors. Over 100 billion dollars of foreign capital has flowed to in the last eight and a half years.

As a country accepting human centered development, we also give high importance to social policies and have made considerable progress in this regard.

To give some examples, Turkey has eliminated absolute poverty. There is no population earning less than 1 dollar per day. Our per capita income based on purchasing power parity (PPP), has almost doubled in last ten years. (16,838 -sixteen thousand eight hundred thirty eight USD in 2011 and 8,613-eight thousand six hundred thirteen USD in 2001)

Turkey has generated almost 4 million new jobs since 2009, 1.5 million of which consist of women employees.

Together with political and economic stability, access to basic services such as education and health has improved significantly. Positive discrimination principle has been adopted for poor and disadvantaged segments of the society.

As a result, participation rates in basic and secondary education have increased considerably. With the implementation of health reform infant mortality rate decreased to 9 from 29 (twenty nine) per thousand, and mother mortality rate decreased to 15 from 61 per thousand between 2003 and 2011.

Turkey is aware that economic and social development could only be achieved by protecting and improving the quality of environment. Therefore, many projects are implemented in the areas of waste and water management, energy efficiency, renewable energy and forestry.

First of all I would like to highlight energy sector.

Energy consumption per capita has been increasing along with economic growth. Turkey tries to increase use of renewable energy resources in final energy use.

Energy supplied through renewables reached to almost 12 (twelve) million tons of oil equivalent in 2010.

While there was not electricity production based on wind in Turkey in 1992, 2.9 billion kilowatt wind energy connected to the system in 2010. Similarly, while heat and electricity production from geothermal energy was 450 thousand tons of oil equivalent in 1992, it increased about 4 times and reached almost 2 million tons of oil equivalent in 2010.

Turkey aims to increase the share of renewable energy in total electricity generation to 30 percent until 2023 from today’s level of 25 percent. It also targeted to save energy through energy efficiency applications. Both existing and planned measures will contribute to our green growth strategy.

As we have very ambitious targets in energy, only public finance would not be enough. Thus the role of private sector is getting more and more important. Most of the renewable energy projects are carried out by private sector recently.

Private sector is supported by some incentives, such as exemptions from license fees, various taxes and duties. With “feed-in tariff” application, exemption is provided to individual entrepreneurs for establishing renewable energy production facilities less than 500 kW. And obligations are introduced for distribution companies to buy this electricity.

With the regulations, it is guaranteed to buy the electricity produced from renewable resources with type-based pricing.

As for transportation,

With the improvement of road network, 1 million liters fuel and 171 million hours were saved last ten years. Moreover, there are several efforts to improve public transportation system particularly the railways.

The use of public-private partnership model also stimulates realization of energy and transportation projects.

Having these two examples (energy and transportation projects), I would like to remind that the recent development efforts are contributing to green growth.

The achievements during the economic crisis; like job creation, debt management and reducing environmental damages also indicate Turkey’s potential for sustainable development and green growth.

Mr Chairman,

Before talking about 10th Development Plan, I would like to highlight Vision 2023 declared by our government.

We have announced quite ambitious but achievable goals for 2023, the 100th anniversary of our republic. We are determined to achieve these goals with sustainable development, green growth and human-centered development principles. Turkey’s Sustainable Development Report: Claiming the Future puts forward the green growth vision of Turkey for 2023.

Dear colleagues,

Green growth can only be a meaningful part of national and international policies if it presents a more honored life to people.

Therefore, Turkey puts “human” at the center of her development approach. We will maintain growth by increasing social benefits and protecting the environment, as sustainable development requires. In that regard, we will strengthen green growth approach on our sustainable development path, based on our “respective capabilities”.

Having this development path, it is clear that we have to increase competitiveness and efficiency of all sectors causing high pressure on environment. Especially energy, industry, agriculture and services sectors should be focused in that regard. Proper use and improvement of clean technology will contribute to efforts in those areas. And the role of private sector as a leading actor is crucial.

If we turn to the social aspects of our green growth strategy, equal opportunities should be given to society as a whole in terms of basic needs. Additionally, it also gives special emphasis to creating employment opportunities and increasing the quality of labor force.

All these components necessitate the continuation and enhancement of economic and social programs applied last decade together with empowering environmental concerns.

Turkey’s experiences of last decade revealed that existence of economic and political stability is vital for sustainable development. Macroeconomic policies that are developed with a long term vision can provide strong opportunities for social and environmental improvements. For that reason, Turkey considers economic, social and environmental improvements as an integral part of development rather than conflicting goals.

Additionally, Turkey aims at being in the first ten largest economies in the world in 2023. In order to provide sufficient economic welfare to its citizens and to reach the stated goals, Turkey should invest in infrastructure more than ever in the following years. For example, as a part rural development and agricultural policies, we are planning to extend irrigated land to 8.5 million hectares. Or, it is targeted to reach 100 per cent enrollment rate in primary education. We want to extend and increase the quality of transport infrastructure. Similarly, we are planning to increase renewable energy use in energy supply mix.

Most recently, we are in the preparation process of 10th National Development Plan. This will be a very good opportunity for us to integrate “green growth” agenda to our main policy document as much as possible. Among all, as a developing country with an increasing population, it is evident that the basic needs for energy, transportation, water, food, education and health services will also increase.

Clearly,

Public resources will not be enough to realize all these investments needs. Therefore, the role of private sector becomes critical both in monetary and capacity terms.

Turkey has played a leading role in public-private partnership applications since 1980s. Currently a wide spectrum of both economic and social projects such as energy, transport and health, are covered by various public-private partnership models.

As of today, there are 111 operational and 23 ongoing PPP projects in Turkey. Contract sizes of PPP projects which are already in operation and under construction also show Turkey’s extensive experience in this field. While total contract size of PPP projects that are in operation reaches 26 billion U.S. Dollars, ongoing projects create a portfolio of approximately 9.4 billion U.S. Dollars at 2011 prices. Especially after 2002, Turkey realized the most significant PPP projects of her history such as Gebze-Izmir-Orhangazi Highway, Sabiha Gökçen Airport and İstanbul Boshporus Tube Tunnel Project, which amount the majority of the investment volume.

With these experiences gained, highest importance and priority will be given to accelerate the existing public-private partnerships and collaborations in order to realize the sustainable development goals at all levels.

This cooperation between public and private sector in financing of infrastructure projects will help to realize targets in near future. Our government announces tender competitions for mega PPP projects such as the construction of a third airport and third bridge in Istanbul, building of new hospital complexes and highway privatizations.



Concerning the energy issues, it is absolute that there will be a special emphasis on renewable energy and energy efficiency measures. Actually, Turkey has already declared her renewable energy and energy efficiency strategy. As I mentioned before, energy supplied through renewables reached to almost 12 (twelve) million tons of oil equivalent in 2010. Turkey aims to increase the share of renewable energy in total electricity generation to 30 percent until 2023 from today’s level of 25 percent. Besides, we included wind energy to our supply mix and the share of geothermal energy has increased about 4 times during last 15 years.

Turkey announced energy efficiency program including certain incentives, capacity building and institutional arrangements. Energy Efficiency Coordination Board was established with the representatives from respective public institutions and relevant NGOs.

Our aim is to accelerate the efforts to fully implement this strategy during the 10th National Plan Period.

 

Definitely these ambitious targets and required investments will have many different positive and negative impacts on sustainable development. In order to achieve sustainable development goals Turkey will make use of all relevant instruments, including green growth, consistent with national special circumstances.

The discussions, views and ideas from such a qualified audience during this forum and special session will contribute to review our policies. And I would like to express once again our sincere thanks to Danish Government for hosting this Forum and providing this platform for Turkey.

 

 

 
 
 
 
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